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把握各类文体 完胜书面表达──中考英语书面表达解题技巧

发布时间:2020年06月17日 来源:招生考试报

武胜县街子初级中学  陈丽君

纵观全国各省市中考英语试题,书面表达是中考英语考查学生综合运用英语语言能力的一种重要题型。这类题型的命题特点是:要求考生能根据写作要求整合素材;能独立起草短文、短信等;能使用连接词表示顺序和逻辑关系;能简单描述人物和事件;能根据表格和图示写出简单的段落或操作说明。题型主要有:话题作文、看图作文和应用作文三种,其中考查话题作文和应用作文的情形较为常见,应用文又以考查书信类应用文最为常见。近年来,书面表达的命题以贴近社会生活、紧扣时代步伐、以与人们生活息息相关的时政问题的材料为载体,考查考生对社会生活的关注度、敏感度、认知判断和价值取向等等,具有一定的开放性和人文性,有利于开拓考生的人文精神和创新精神。

下面笔者以近年来全国各省市的中考书面表达范文为蓝本,分析其写作思路,谋篇布局,赏析其好词好句,进行写作指导,供读者借鉴参考。

一、紧扣时代步伐,具有浓郁的时政特色的话题作文

2019 •山东泰安中考】书面表达

习近平总书记在全国教育大会上提出了立德树人的人才培养根本任务,作为初中毕业生,你有什么人生规划?请根据以下提示,写一篇英语演讲稿。

提示: 

1. 作为中国人而自豪:过去,我国优秀的传统文化影响了世界:今天,祖国在全国人民的努力下越来越强大,许多科技世界领先;

2. 为实现中国梦而奋斗:学会做一个懂感恩、守规矩、善良诚信的人;不畏难,努力学习知识、提高能力,将来成为一名

要求:语句通顺,意思连贯,可根据提示适当发挥,不要逐句翻译;演讲中不得提及生个人身份的相关信息,如人名、校名或地名等;词数80—100,开头结尾已给出(不计入词数)。

Hello, everyone! _______________________________________________________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

That's all. Thank you!

参考范文欣赏

Hello, everyone! As a Chinese, I am so proud of it. In the past, our great traditional culture made a difference to the world, such as sailing, communicating and so on. Nowadays, our country is becoming stronger and stronger by working hard of all Chinese. A lot of science and technology lead the world, such as high speed, Chang’e 4 and Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge and so on.

As a teenager, we should do as follows to achieve our Chinese dream. First of all, we are supposed to thank all the people who devote themselves to making our country wonderful. What’s more, we need follow the rules. In school we should obey the school rules. Only by doing these dimple things we can become a person that the country needs. In addition, we’d better not lie and be a honest man in order that all people can trust us. Last but not least, we should try our best to work hard and when we face difficulties, we never give up. I am going to be a scientists. If I am a scientist, I will do more researches and let other countries admire us.

That's all. Thank you!

剖析范文写作思路

第一节:总述我国在过去和现在取得的成就。

第二节:作者结合自身的实际情况,分别阐述了:1)感恩 we are supposed to thank all the people who devote themselves to making our country wonderful2)守纪 In school we should obey the school rules3)诚信we’d better not lie and be a honest man in order that all people can trust us4)勇敢面对困难 we should try our best to work hard and when face difficulties, we never give up5)畅想人生规划 I am going to be a scientists. If I am a scientist, I will do more researches and let other countries admire us.。阐述立德树人,实现中国梦的观点,畅想考生的人生规划。

第三节:总结全文:That's all. Thank you!

范文好词好句

1范文中用到的短语:

 be proud of, 而感到自豪

 make a difference to,产生影响

 such as, 比如,本文由抽象概述到具体列举。

 and so on, 等等

 比较级and比较级, stronger and stronger 越来越强大

 devote oneself to doing, 献身或致力于做某事  

 had better not do sth.  最好不做某事

 try one’s best  尽某人的最大努力

 first of all, what’s more, in additionlast but not least等,增强逻辑关系,增加上下文意思连贯,用词准确,句子通顺,行文连贯。

2.范文好句分析:

 We are supposed to thank all the people who devote themselves to making our country wonderful.

who引导的定语从句,先行词是people.

 We can become a person that the country needs.  that引导的定语从句,先行词是person.

 We’d better not lie and be a honest man in order that all people can trust us.   in order that 引导目的状语从句

 When we face difficulties, we never give up.  when引导的时间状语从句

 If I am a scientist, I will do more researches and let other countries admire us.  if引导的条件状语从句

【话题作文写作指导】

1)审题:对于话题作文,审题的关键在于审清楚话题表示的观点,也就是题目要求对于什么事情进行评论。对此,我们一般可以从所给出的话题或文章标题中提取出关键信息。如范文中,给出的话题是立德树人,实现中国梦,作为中学生应怎样畅想人生规划,那么,我们不难提取出关键词:Chinese dream中国梦)、畅想人生规划:感恩、守纪、诚信、勇敢面对困难,成为一名科学家。审清楚话题观点,才能保证我们接下去的写作切题。

2)构思:话题作文往往是通过话题反映观点,再通过观点支撑所讨论的话题。如上面提到的立德树人,实现 中国梦,作为中学生应怎样畅想人生规划的话题,我们就不能仅仅表达自己的观点,否则作文会显得过于空洞,而是要结合社会上我们天天能够见到的事例如感恩、守纪、诚信、勇敢面对困难来畅想自己的人生规划,这样使文章才具有实在的生活化的内容。

3)结构:话题作文的写作,推荐采用总--总的结构进行,文章虽然可以不作明确的分节处理,但也因有层次感。一般开头总括观点,中间部分结合事例阐述,最后再总结全文。这样的作文的结构会显得较为完整。

二、体现国家政策,关注社会生活的图表作文

2016 四川达州中考】书面表达

中共十八届五中全会提出一对夫妇可生育两个孩子政策后,全社会展开了热烈的讨论,某校也就"是否想要个弟弟或妹妹"对部分学生进行了一次问卷调查,请你根据此结果写一份调查报告,并适当阐述你的观点,问卷调查结果如图所示:

1.png

注意:1.全文字数90词左右;

2.条理清楚,书写工整,句式规范,标点符号和大小写使用正确;

3.短文中不能出现真实的人名、地名,文章开头已给出,不计入单词总数.

Recentlya survey has been made in our school on whether you want a little brother or sisterThe opinions are different                                                                                

                                                                                        

                                                                                        

【参考范文欣赏】

Recentlya survey has been made in our school on whether you want a little brother or sisterThe opinions are differentAbout forty percent students think it's good to have a brother or a sisterThey can help each other and share the happiness and sadness togetherAnd they won't feel lonely anymoreWhat's morethey think they'll get more freedomBut others disagreeThey think they won't get used to the changeThey also worry that their parents won't love them as much as beforeBesidesthey're afraid that the new baby will be so noisy that it may bother their study

In my opinionit's hard to say whether it's good or bad to have a brother or sisterBut we should respect our parents' choicesAfter allthey're the persons who will make the final decision

.

【剖析范文写作思路】

这是一篇图表作文.内容是某校就"是否想要个弟弟或妹妹"对部分学生进行的一次问卷调查,写一份调查报告,并适当阐述你的观点.时态主要为一般现在时和一般将来时.人称主要为第一、三人称.

写作思路:考生需要首先审清主题,围绕主题展开作文.其次考生可从以下两个个方面分两节展开作文,即本文的写作思路:

第一节:调查结果;40%支持:不再孤独,彼此帮助,分享喜忧.60%反对:担心父母的爱,打扰学习……

第二节:考生自己的观点

【范文好词好句】

1. 范文中用到的短语:

 get used to 习惯于

 what's more 再者

 after all 毕竟

 as…as 一样

2.范文好句分析:

.从句套用应用即that引导的宾语从句中套用了so…that如此以致于that引导的结果状语从句,使范文增色不少

Besidesthey're afraid that the new baby will be so noisy that it may bother their study

they're afraid that the new baby will be.   that引导的宾语从句.

so noisy that it may bother their study..so…that如此以致于that引导的结果状语从句

.In my opinionit's hard to say whether it's good or bad to have a brother or sister

it's hard to say.  it是形式主语,动词不定式是真正主语.  

whether it's good or bad to have a brother or sistersay后面是whether 引导的宾语从句.

.After allthey're the persons who will make the final decision

After allthey're the persons.  after all 毕竟,做插入语

who will make the final decisionwho作为关系词的定语从句,修饰先行词personswho作为从句的主语.

 

【图表作文写作指导】

1)审题:看图作文就是要求学生根据题目给出的一幅或几幅图画所提供的图像信息写一篇短文。此类作文的体裁较广泛,可以是记叙文、说明文、也可以是议论文。写看图作文要注意一下几个方面:

看图作文通常有一定的文字提示,这就要求我们在动笔前一定要通读提示,明确写作要求,不能丢掉命题所提供的任何信息,如时间、地点、人物,时间发生的先后顺序等。

 图表时作文的基础,要仔细观察、分析每一幅图画,弄清画面所反映的事件或蕴含的某种这里。

 找出图中事物之间的内在联系。如果有多幅图画,就要分析它们之间的内在联系及画中人物、事物之间的逻辑关系。

 设法从有限的画面空间拓展视野,充分发挥想象。要根据画面情景、人物表情、环境等大胆联想,使文字描绘栩栩如生,令人读后有身临其境之感。

 反复阅读所给的关键词。关键词是命题人根据画面的内容、范围定下的基调,应仔细阅读这些关键词,并以此为线索从中悟出其中要阐述的中心思想。

2)构思:图表类作文一般分为两节,第一节描述图片、表格中的内容,此部分需要注意其中的注释部分。第二节写出考生自己的观点,或者图片或表格背后所蕴藏的道理。

三、凸显学科特点,注重人文交流的应用文

中考英语应用文的考查多以书信类文体的考查最为常见。

2018四川绵阳中考】书面表达

51.假定你是班长李华,请回复新同学Mike的求助邮件,给他至少3条建议并说明理由。词数80 -100,开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

To: Li Hua

From: Mike

Hi Li Hua,

You know I am new here. I found it hard for me to get along well with people here. When I have trouble with my study, I don’t know how to get help. I really want to be a good part of the class. Would you please give me some advice?

I am looking forward to your reply.

Mike

 

To: Mike

From: Li Ha

Hi Mike,

 

Li Hua

 

参考范文欣赏

ToMike

FromLi Hua

Hi, Mike,

Because you're new there, it's normal to have these problems. You should try to get along with them and take an active part in their activities. Activities can help you suggest good friendships. You should be friendly to them. I believe you smile at them and they will smile back. As for your study, you should consult your teachers and classmates more. There is a saying: "There must be one out of three who can be your teacher."   

Therefore, it is important to ask more questions. In addition, you should help them more so that you can help each other. I'm sure you'll be one of them.

Li Hua

 

剖析范文写作思路

这篇书信类应用文开篇点题,说明写信目的是为帮助Mike解决问题。中间用You should….句型向Mike提出建议:首先建议Mike应该多参加活动,其次建议Mike应该对别人友好多微笑;在学习方面你应该向自己的老师和自己的同学求助;另外建议Mike还要多帮助别人。文中还引用了考生耳熟能详的《论语》中孔子告诫弟子的话"There must be one out of three who can be your teacher."三人行必有我师告诫Mike使文章增色不少because, therefore等连词的使用使文章具有连贯性。

范文好词好句

1.范文中用到的短语:

 get along with sb.  和某人和睦相处

 take an active part in  积极参加

 be friendly to sb.  对某人友好

 smile at sb.   对某人微笑

2.范文中用到的好句:

 it's normal to have these problems.  it是形式主语,动词不定式是真正主语.

 There must be one out of three who can be your teacher.  三人行必有我师

 You should help them more so that you can help each other.  so that以便、为了,so that引导的目的状语从句

 

应用文(书信类)写作指导

1. 信头:信头是指写信人的地址及日期,位于信笺的右上方。顺序是先写地址,后写日期。地址由小写到大,即门牌号街名城市省份国名,由小到大的顺序书写。日期可按的顺序或的顺序写。

2. 信内地址:它是指收信人的姓名和地址,写在信笺的左上方,稍低于信头一至二行,在称呼语上方。顺序是先写收信人姓名,后写职务,再写地址(由小到大)

3. 称呼:收信人的称呼,写在信纸的左边,低于信内地址。

4. 正文:是写信者所要说的话,正文信的内容,从左向右横写,低于称呼语,常在缩进四、五个字母处起笔。写信与写文章一样,要分段写,每段有一个中心思想,内容要表达清楚,语言要简单明了,态度要诚恳礼貌。给亲友的信还应亲切热情。考试时必须把规定的内容写清楚。正文结束时,还可写一两句表达心愿的话,如:Best wishes to you /Remember me to your family等。

5. 结束语:发信人表示自己对收信人的一种客套称呼,写在书信正文结尾下面。结束语的第一个字母必须大写,后面须加上逗号。常用:Yours,/Yours ever, 等等。

6. 签名:发信人自己的姓名,写在结束语的下面一行。可与结束语齐头或略向右靠一点儿。

 

总之,中考英语书面表达从考查内容上要求考生要关注热点信息,关心社会生活,了解时政要闻,把握时代脉搏,从表达方式上要求考生熟练掌握各种文体的写作思路和要求,进行切实有效的认真训练,及时总结写作思路方法,掌握应试规律,提高写作能力,取得好的成绩。


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